Terpenes and Cannabinoids

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What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are fragrant oils that give cannabis its aromatic diversity. These oils are secreted in the flower’s sticky resin glands, the same ones that produce THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids. Terpene molecules are quite small and are formed by chains of linked chemical units called isoprene. They are also found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers.

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What Are Cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant that interact with receptors in the brain and body to create various effects. THC, CBD, and other active medicinal cannabinoids are the secreted by cannabis flowers in sticky Trichomes or the resin glands of the Cannabis plant.

Bloom-Medicinals-MD-Cannabinoids-_Endocannabinoid-System

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The discovery of endocannabinoids led to the identification of an entire system in the human body, comprised of lipids, receptors, and enzymes.

The endocannabinoid system is responsible for a host of physiological processes that rely on the interactivity of cannabinoids and their receptors. Since their discovery and cloning in the early ‘90s, the CB1 and CB2 receptors are still the only receptors that have been identified in the endocannabinoid system. The location of a cannabinoid receptor is the biggest clue as to how it relates to different cannabinoids and bodily functions.

Terpene Benefits

The aroma, flavor, and color of cannabis flowers depend on the type, strength, and quantity of terpenes within that plant.Terpenes also contribute to a strain’s influence – a phenomenon known as the entourage effect. Actively stimulating serotonin inhibitors, terpenes enhance dopamine activity in your brain. Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various effects.

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Aroma & Taste

The name terpene is derived from the word “turpentine,” which is a fluid gotten by the distillation of resin from live pine trees. The sour, bitter, sweet, succulent, piney, earthy, citrusy and other words that describe a flavor or scent stemming from fruits, vegetables, flowers, and trees are due to terpenes.

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Entourage Effect

Overall, terpenes contribute to a strain’s influence – a phenomenon known as the entourage effect. Actively stimulating serotonin inhibitors, terpenes enhance dopamine activity in your brain. Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various effects.

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Where To Findss

All medical cannabis products are required to display their cannabinoids and terpene content on each product label. Understanding which terpenes to look for can help patients find the most effective products to help them manage their medical condition.

Terpenes In Cannabis

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Alpha-Pinene

Flavors: herbal, woody, rosemary

Effects: bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, topical antiseptic, memory-aid

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Caryophyllene

Flavors: pepper, spice, wood, cloves

Effects: antidepressant, alalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antianxiety, gastroprotective

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Humulene

Flavors: earthy, woody, spicy, hops

Effects: anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, appetite suppressant

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Limonene

Flavors:citrus fruit/rind (lemons, oranges)

Effects: anti-depressant, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, immunostimulant

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Linalool

Flavors: floral, citrus, orange, terpy, waxy, rose

Effects: bronchodilator, antianxiety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant

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Myrcene

Flavors: musky, balsam, cloves, earthy, minty, peppery

Effects: anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, sedation, antidepressant, antibiotic

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Ocimene

Flavors: sweet, herbal, woody

Effects: antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, decongestant, antibacterial, energetic

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Terpinolene

Flavors: herbal. fresh, woody, pine, citrus, sweet

Effects: anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, antioxidant

Types of Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant that interact with receptors in the brain and body to create various effects.

THC, CBD, and other active medicinal cannabinoids are the secreted by cannabis flowers in sticky Trichomes or the resin glands of the Cannabis plant. They provide relief to an array of symptoms including pain, nausea, anxiety, and inflammation. There are four types of cannabinoids recognized by the National Institutes of Health:

  • Phytocannabinoids includes all of the plant material (leaves, stem, seeds, etc.)
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids that are produced by the human body
  • Synthetic cannabinoids are chemical imitations
  • “Purified natural occurring” extracts are attempts to isolate cannabinoids
THC_Compound
THC

Benefits: has the strongest psychoactive effects and may treat a wide variety of medical conditions such as chronic pain.

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CBD

Benefits: has no psychoactive effects and has been show to treat symptoms of PTSD, Epilepsy, Crohn’s Disease and more.

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CBG

Benefits: found to be effective at inhibiting cancer cell growth, and may lower intraocular pressure for patients diagnosed with glaucoma

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CBC

Benefits: may block inflammation associated with chronic or severe pain, and shown to inhibit cancer cell growth

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